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Table 1 Scopus cited journal articles prioritizing most important rice production constraints (1997–2014)

From: Rice production constraints and ‘new’ challenges for South Asian smallholders: insights into de facto research priorities

Major rice production constraints in South Asia Weighted average yield loss % Relevant articles Congruency ratios
No. %
Socio economic 22.2 73 7.8 0.35
 Difficult access to sufficient irrigation water 4.5 0 0 0
 Unavailability of quality seed 3.8 15 1.6 0.42
 High cost of irrigation 3.4 20 2.1 0.63
 Nitrogen fertilizer expensive/in short supply 3.3 16 1.7 0.52
 Inadequate farmer knowledge/training 2.8 15 1.6 0.56
 Insufficient access to agricultural information 2.6 0 0 0
 High price of inputs other than nitrogen 2.1 10 1.1 0.50
Abiotic 21.9 421 45.0 2.05
 Drought or intermittent water stress 6.9 66 7.1 1.03
 Soil fertility depletion 5.7 74 7.9 1.38
 Nitrogen deficiency 3.1 212 22.6 7.19
 Flooding of low lying fields 1.5 28 3.0 2.02
 Deficiency or toxicity of micronutrients 1.3 11 1.2 0.90
 Phosphorus unavailability 1.1 32 3.4 2.98
 Cyclone/typhoon damage 0.5 5 0.5 1.06
 Soil physical/structural degradation 0.5 27 2.9 5.76
 High temperature stress 0.4 20 2.1 6.07
 Potassium deficiency 0.4 10 1.1 3.03
 Low temperature (cold) stress 0.1 8 0.9 11.58
Biotic 18.2 200 21.4 1.18
 Weed competition 6.6 85 9.1 1.38
 Leaf and stem pests 4.5 33 3.5 0.78
 Leaf, stem, and panicle diseases 3.4 75 8.0 2.35
 Rodent damage 1.8 6 0.6 0.35
 Storage pests 1.0 1 0.1 0.11
 Root and soil diseases 0.9 0 0 0
 Soil insects 0.5 2 0.2 0.44
Management-related 21.5 244 26.1 1.21
 Inadequate water management 6.0 119 12.7 2.12
 Inappropriate/poor nutrient/fertilizer use 4.1 75 8.0 1.93
 Late planting of crop 2.7 20 2.1 0.80
 Use of low yielding or old variety 2.6 10 1.1 0.41
 Poor crop rotations and sequences 1.7 10 1.1 0.62
 Inappropriate/poor insect/disease management 1.6 14 1.5 0.92
 Field crop establishment difficulties 1.2 2 0.2 0.18
 Inappropriate/poor weed management 1.1 29 3.1 2.78
 Poor seedling nursery management 0.4 0 0 0
Total 83.8 777 83.8  
  1. Note that the category totals are not necessarily the sum of the individual production constraints in each category. This is because some articles have focused on more than one production constraint.