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Table 2 Degree centrality results for rice production constraints

From: Rice production constraints and ‘new’ challenges for South Asian smallholders: insights into de facto research priorities

Rice production constraints in South Asia Yield losses (weighted average) Degree centrality (ranking in brackets)
1997–2014 1997–2007 2008–2014
Socio economic 22.2    
 Difficult access to sufficient irrigation water 4.5 - - -
 Unavailability of quality seed 3.8 6 (15th) 3 (14th) 5 (13th)
 High cost of irrigation 3.4 8 (9th) 3 (14th) 8 (8th)
 Nitrogen fertilizer expensive/in short supply 3.3 11 (6th) 7 (6th) 8 (8th)
 Inadequate farmer knowledge/training 2.8 8 (9th) 1 (22nd) 8 (8th)
 Insufficient access to agricultural information 2.6 - - -
 High price of inputs other than N 2.1 - - -
Abiotic 21.9    
 Drought or intermittent water stress 6.9 7 (13th) 3 (14th) 6 (11th)
 Soil fertility depletion 5.7 12 (4th) 7 (6th) 10 (3rd)
 Nitrogen deficiency 3.1 18 (2nd) 17 (1st) 16 (1st)
 Flooding of low lying fields 1.5 7 (13th) 4 (9th) 6 (11th)
 Deficiency or toxicity of micronutrients 1.3 5 (17th) 4 (9th) 1 (25th)
 Phosphorus unavailability 1.1 9 (7th) 5 (8th) 9 (6th)
 Cyclone/typhoon damage 0.5 3 (23rd) - 3 (17th)
 Soil physical/structural degradation 0.5 5 (17th) 3 (14th) 3 (17th)
 High temperature stress 0.4 8 (9th) 4 (9th) 5 (13th)
 Potassium deficiency 0.4 8 (9th) 8 (4th) 4 (16th)
 Low temperature (cold) stress 0.1 3 (23rd) - 3 (17th)
Biotic 18.2    
 Weed competition 6.6 12 (4th) 8 (4th) 10 (3rd)
 Leaf and stem pests 4.5 3 (23rd) 2 (19th) 2 (23rd)
 Leaf, stem, and panicle diseases 3.4 4 (19th) 4 (9th) 3 (25th)
 Rodent damage 1.8 2 (24th) - 2 (23rd)
 Storage pests 1.0 - - -
 Root and soil diseases 0.9 - - -
 Soil insects 0.5 2 (24th) - 2 (23rd)
Management-related 21.5    
 Inadequate water management 6.0 19 (1st) 16 (2nd) 15 (2nd)
 Inappropriate/poor nutrient/fertilizer use 4.1 13 (3rd) 12 (3rd) 10 (3rd)
 Late planting of crop 2.7 4 (19th) 3 (14th) 3 (17th)
 Use of low yielding or old variety 2.6 4 (19th) 1 (22nd) 3 (17th)
 Poor crop rotations and sequences 1.7 2 (24th) 2 (19th) 1 (25th)
 Inappropriate/poor insect/disease management 1.6 6 (15th) 2 (19th) 5 (13th)
 Field crop establishment difficulties 1.2 4 (19th) 1 (22nd) 3 (17th)
 Inappropriate/poor weed management 1.1 9 (7th) 4 (9th) 9 (6th)
 Poor seedling nursery management 0.4 - - -
  1. A dash (−) indicates that no interactions were made for that particular rice production constraint by the Scopus cited journal articles captured in the analysis. Rice production constraints with the same degree of centrality are given the same rank.