Skip to main content

Table 1 Household characteristics in the study areas

From: Exploring gender perceptions of resource ownership and their implications for food security among rural livestock owners in Tanzania, Ethiopia, and Nicaragua

Household characteristics
Country Tanzania Ethiopia Nicaragua
District Kongwa Mvomero Lushoto Yabello Atsbi Boaco Matagalpa
Population characteristics Males 154,843 149,221 30,236 487,000 53,659 19,057 23,381
Females 157,266 160,752 262,205 475,400 58,682 20,035 23,036
Total population 309,109 312,109 492,441 962,400 112,341 39,092 46,417
Total Ag HH 50,735 58,314 94,075 174,474 26,425 7,058 8,828
Average HH size 5 4 4.7 7 5 5.5 5.2
% female-headed HH 29 19 26 28 15–30 44 23
Average HH income (USD) Average HH income 320 1,095 1,018 400 487 N/A N/A
Male-headed HH 386 1,253 1,097 428 615 N/A N/A
Female-headed HH 153 463 580 272 358 N/A N/A
Agro-ecology Semi-arid climate with great variability in rainfall Semi-arid climate/comprised of three agro-ecological zones Montane climate with a bimodal rainfall pattern (800–2,000 mm per annum) Drought-prone semi-arid pastoral rangeland. Highly variable spatial and temporal features. Bimodal rainfall ranging between 300 and 900 mm per annum Mild temperatures. Variable topography—mountains alternating with wide plains. Highly eroded slopes. Intense rainfall of short duration (annual average 668 mm) Irregular mountainous topography. Diverse climate including grasslands and tropical forest Extensive forests with high annual rainfall (1,200–1,900 mm per annum)
Ag production system Rain-fed subsistence farming, mixed crop /livestock, agro-pastoralism Rain-fed subsistence farming, mixed crop/livestock, agro-pastoralism Mixed crop/livestock, rain-fed agriculture and irrigation agriculture, agro-pastoralism Mostly livestock production, with some crop farming Rain-fed agriculture with minimal irrigation. Predominantly crop production with modest livestock holdings Mixed crop/livestock. Cattle production predominantly based on permanent grazing of naturalized grasslands. Rainfall and irrigation agriculture Mixed crop/livestock. Cattle production predominantly based on permanent grazing of naturalized grasslands. Rainfall and irrigation agriculture
Villages/communities in the study 1. Masinyeti 2. Ihanda 1. Wami Luhindo 2. Wami Dakawa 3. Wami Sokoine 4. Mayinga 1. Lwandai 2. Viti Lushoto Elwoye 1. Golgol Neale 2. Habes 3. Gebrekidan Camoapa Matiguás