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Table 1 Recent major natural disasters in developing countries: their impact, actions taken, challenges, and results

From: Impacts of natural disasters on smallholder farmers: gaps and recommendations

  Earthquake in Nepal (2015) Earthquake in Haiti (2010) Flooding in Pakistan (2010) Tsunami in Southeast Asia (2004) Earthquake in Gujarat, India (2001) Famine in Ethiopia  (1983–1985)
Victims, injured ~ 9000 deaths; 21,000 injured ~ 220,000 deaths; 300,000 injured ~ 1700 deaths; 2000 injured ~ 275,000 deaths; 500,000 injured ~ 20,000 deaths; 166,000 injured ~ 400,000 deaths; millions starved
Affected areas Mid-hill region of the country including Kathmandu, the capital city Port-au-Prince, the capital city; Jacmel and other settlements in the region Indus River basin in Sindh, Punjab and Balochistan regions of Pakistan Coastal areas in 14 countries; Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India, Thailand, and Maldives were the most affected Indian state of Gujarat; 21 out of 25 districts in the state were totally destroyed; Kutch was the worst affected district Four Ethiopian provinces, namely Gojjam, Hararghe, Tigray, and Wollo experienced the most extreme drought
Impact 2.8 million people displaced, 8 million affected; 473,000 houses destroyed without a single home in a village left standing; terrace farm and cattle were wiped out by subsequent landslides; total economic impact of over USD 6.6 billion 1.5 million people initially displaced, 3.5 million were affected; 250,000 residences and 30,000 commercial buildings collapsed or were severely damaged 20 million people affected; extensive damage to infrastructure (USD 4 billion) and crops (2.2 million ha of crops and 450,000 livestock worth USD 500 million) with an estimated total loss of over USD 10 billion 1.7 million people displaced, severely affected were poor villagers living in the most vulnerable areas along the coast; estimated total economic loss was over USD 9.9 billion 2 million people displaced, 15.9 million people affected; 80% of water and food sources destroyed; nearly 400,000 homes damaged; total asset loss estimated at more than USD 2.1 billion Initially, 3.9 million people affected; total failure of crops in the north crippled northern Ethiopia; persistence of drought and poor security conditions causing 5.8 million people to be dependent on food aid
Actions taken UN and International humanitarian agencies requested USD 432 million in emergency funds of which over USD 100 million were received; aid/support extended through the Red Cross, I/NGOs, and disaster relief fund of the government USD 13.34 billion aid allocated by international agencies for 2010–2020; USD 4 billion aid committed by US government of which >3 billion already disbursed UN asked for USD 460 million for emergency relief; rescue efforts were led by Pakistani armed force while humanitarian aid was provided by Pakistani and foreign governments, NGOs and local charities Received generous international response, raised USD 14 billion; the governments of the affected countries added USD 2.5 billion Humanitarian interventions led by the Indian government and supported by national and international groups; nearly USD 18 billion aid was invested in Bhuj area International aid routed through relief and rehabilitation committee (RRC) led by Ethiopian government, which became a part of the counter insurgency strategy of the government
Aid response and outcomes Help came right away and but then slowed down. Nepal's government was unable to develop effective reconstruction plans to utilize $4.1 billion pledged by other countries and foreign agencies. Despite significant donations, people were living in temporary shelters even two years after the disaster; much food aid was never handed out, but instead rotted in warehouses Despite billions of dollars spent, farmers reported receiving no support from NGOs leading to higher crime, mortality and hunger; NGO-focused interventions weakened government institutions Months after the floods, hundreds of thousands of people remained in temporary camps with inadequate sanitation and food supply; small farmers were badly affected Local poor who were affected severely by the tsunami received little consideration in some countries since the focus was given to construction of infrastructure People were living in temporary shelters even 1 year after the disaster; however, post-quake recovery efforts by the government and local communities were successful Close to 8 million people became famine victims; the death toll may have been up to 1 million, according to the UN
Major challenges Poor coordination between the actors involved in operation; duplicated activities
 Distribution in remote hills  
Lack of appropriate mechanism for tracking and control of aid flow  
Problem in decision-making/lack of political consensus
Poor demand forecasting; excess and unregulated donations with poor coordination  
Transportation and distribution of aid materials  
Weak government, complex protocols  
Lack of experienced and skill personnel  
Lack of equipment to clear debris
Slow and disorganized response of the government; flaws in the distribution model as well as limited use of helicopters  
Problems with funding, demand forecasting and acquisition  
Lack of appropriate mechanism for tracking and control of aid flow
Excess of unnecessary donation/inadequate essential donations  
Lack of coordination  
Fragile political situation in Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and Thailand  
High cost of military operations
Lack of communication, accurate assessment of the extent of the damage  
Lack of equipment and experienced and skilled personnel to expedite the rescue efforts  
Poor coordination or involvement of other stakeholders
Political turmoil/civil war  
Government access to only a minority of the famine-stricken population in the north  
Government policy to withhold food supply to rebel areas  
High price of grains
References [37, 6062] [13, 31, 39, 40, 44] [11, 12, 21, 45] [31, 48, 51, 53, 63] [5456, 82] [20, 57]