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Table 5 Mean annual livestock feed supply, demand and balance per household in the mixed crop–livestock system, central highlands of Ethiopia

From: Evaluation of livestock feed balance under mixed crop–livestock production system in the central highlands of Ethiopia

Feed supply, livestock demand and feed balance Wealth groups Total (n = 159)
Poor (n = 50) Medium (n = 58) Better-off (n = 51)
DM demand (t/hh) 11.6 (0.4)a 18.7 (0.6)b 27.4 (0.8)c 19.3 (0.6)***
DM supply (t/hh)
 On-farm 5.6 (0.2)a 7.6 (0.2)b 10.0 (0.3)c 7.7 (0.2)***
 On-farm and purchased 6.3 (0.2)a 9.4 (0.4)b 12.6 (0.4)c 9.5 (0.3)***
Balance (t/hh)
 On-farm − 6.0 (0.5)c − 11.2 (0.7)b − 17.4 (0.7)a − 11.5 (0.5)***
 On-farm & purchased − 5.3 (0.5)c − 9.3 (0.7)b − 14.8 (0.7)a − 9.8 (0.5)***
ME demand (‘000 MJ/hh) 54.9 (1.8)a 86.4 (2.7)b 122.8 (2.9)c 88.1 (2.6)***
ME supply (‘000 MJ/hh)
 On-farm 42.5 (1.5)a 57.5 (1.9)b 75.9 (2.2)c 58.7 (1.5)***
 On-farm and purchased 47.5 (1.7)a 71.0 (2.7)b 94.4 (3.3)c 71.1 (2.1)***
Balance (‘000 MJ/hh)
 On-farm − 12.3 (2.5)c − 28.9 (3.4)b − 46.9 (3.1)a − 29.5 (2.1)***
 On-farm and purchased − 7.3 (2.6)cb − 15.4 (3.8)b − 28.3 (3.5)a − 17.0 (2.1)***
DCP demand (kg/hh) 392.2 (14.6)a 630.4 (23.5)b 907.1 (21.8)c 644.2 (20.2)***
DCP supply (kg/hh)
 On-farm 215.7 (6.8)a 303.9 (9.3)b 407.4 (11.8)c 309.4 (8.2)***
 On-farm and purchased 252.1 (8.3)a 403.1 (16.3)b 543.4 (21.9)c 400.6 (13.3)***
Balance (kg/hh)
 On-farm − 176.4 (16)c − 326.5 (24.7)b − 499.7 (17.3)a − 334.9 (15.5)***
 On-farm and purchased − 140.0 (16.9)c − 227.2 (26.4)b − 363.7 (20.2)a − 243.6 (14.6)***
  1. Values in parentheses indicate standard errors (SE)
  2. n number of respondents, DM dry matter, ME metabolizable energy, MJ mega joules, DCP digestible crude protein, kg kilogram, t ton, hh household
  3. a,b,cMeans in a row with different superscripts differ significantly (P < 0.05), NS not significant at the 0.05 probability level
  4. ***Significant at 0.001 probability level